Age, parity and cattle breed are intrinsic factor that determine the rate of pregnancy in cattle through AI. In addition, level of education, record keeping and proximity to insemination office exogenously affect the rate at which heifer become pregnant among small-scale farmers in Rwanda. These were the findings of a study conducted in rural Rwanda whose objective was to assess factors that affect pregnancy rate (PR) of cows using artificial insemination (AI) under small scale systems. Cows with a maximum age of 4 years, parity between 4 and 6 as well as local and cross breeds had higher PR. Findings indicated that PR was high in cows whose owners had post-primary education and who also had a predisposition to keep records. Cows of households located less than 3km away from an insemination center had higher rates of pregnancy at 76%.