It has emerged that policy deficiencies and contradictions, insecurity of land tenure, inadequacy of capacity of community based institutions, corrupt practices, poor coordination in resettling migrants, and inadequate capacity of planning of land use at village level are fueling perpetual conflicts between farmers and herders in Tanzania. This was revealed in a study conducted in Morogoro and Pwani regions of Tanzania to establish causes of conflicts between farmers and herders amidst escalated conflict between these two groups. This was despite government’s efforts to halt the incessant skirmishes. The study that involved individual farmers, herders, village and districts leaders concluded that the most profound cause of conflicts is lack of security of land tenure to smallholder farmers and herders who hold and use land intermittently rendering it susceptible to alienation through acquisition and encroachment. Researchers recommended review of land policies to ensure security of land tenure geared towards curbing land grabbing and corrupt practices.